Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Flows over Rough Walls
Numerical simulations of turbulent flows over rough walls
Roughness is present in many applications in engineering, meteorology and the geophysical sciences, and its effects on the fluid flow have been studied for almost a century. Early studies measured only the drag (resulting, for instance, in the well-known Moody diagram); more recently, turbulence statistics have been collected in many geometries. It is very difficult and expensive, however, to measure the flow between the roughness elements; thus, most studies concentrate on the region above the roughness crest, where similarity exists: the roughness determines the velocity scale that makes turbulent statistics collapse. Over the last decade, the development of efficient Immersed Boundary Methods has allowed the numerical simulation of flows over very complex geometries to become feasible. The increase in available computational power, furthermore, has made it possible to reach Reynolds numbers sufficiently high that the effects of roughness are significant while the roughness elements are small enough that the global characteristics of the flow are not affected. Numerical simulations have made the flow between the roughness elements accessible, allowing more complete studies of the momentum and energy transfer mechanisms due to roughness. Examples will be presented of flows subjected to pressure gradients or system rotation to highlight the effects of the interaction between roughness and non-equilibrium turbulence. The effect of roughness on the transport of passive will also be discussed.
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Contact: Benjamin Riviere firstname.lastname@example.org